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STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION

1. A 2 kg. mass is being supported by three parallel springs with spring constant of 0.8 kN/m., 0.4 kN/m. and 0.8 kN/m. respectively. The natural period of vibration is:

2. A mass of 50 grams is attached to a weightless cord of length 0.25m. What will be the period of vibration of the resulting pendulum?

3. A 2 kg. mass is being supported by three parallel spring constants of 0.7 kN/m 0.5 kN/m and 0.8 kN/m respectively. If the mass is given a 40 mm displacement and released, the maximum velocity will be:

4. A 4 kg mass is suspended from a spring which has a spring constant of 2,000 N/m. Determine the frequency of vibration of the ecosystem.

5. The condition when the frequency of excitation equals the frequency of the building response.

6. A method of discretization in which the distributed mass of the element is lumped at the nodes or joints.

7.The no. of independent coordinates required to completely define the position of the system at any time.

8. The frequency at which a viscously damped system oscillates in free vibration.

9.The problem of solving a homogeneous system of equations containing a parameter which should be determined to provide non- trivial solution.

10. The number of cycles per second that a single degree of freedom system vibrates freely or a multi degree of freedom system vibrates in one of the normal modes.

11. The ratio of viscous damping coefficient to the critical damping.

12. In an underdamped system

Answer: Damping coefficient is less than critical damping

13. The natural logarithm of the ratio of any two successive amplitudes of the same sign obtained in the decay curve in a free vibration test.

14. Maximum value of a function as it varies with time. If the variation with time can be described by either a sine or cosine function, it is said to vary harmonically.

15. Correlation between the function x (t) and the put-off – phase function x (t + ꚍ) as defined by.

Answer: Autocorrelation of a Random Function

16. Smooth or average plots of maximum response of single degrees-of- freedom systems used in seismic design of structure.

17. An equation whose roots are the natural frequencies.

18. The solution of homogenous differential equation ( no excitation)

19. This principles states that a dynamic system may be assumed to be in equilibrium provided that the inertial forces are considered as external forces.

20. The frequency at which a viscously damped system oscillates in free vibration.

21. A generalized function having the properties described.

22. A process which can be predicted by an exact mathematical expression.

23. The method of assembling the system stiffness matrix by proper summation of the stiffness coefficients of the elements in the system.

24. A summation of harmonic terms to express the Fourier transform for a function defined by finite number of points.

25. The ratio between the maximum displacement for elastoplastic behavior and the displacement corresponding to yield point.

26. A method of reducing the dimension of the eigen problem by establishing the dynamic relation between primary and secondary coordinates.

27. The property of a body as a aircraft rocket or ship to maintain its altitude or to resist displacement, and , if displaced, to develop forces and movement tending to restore the original condition.

28. Minimum amount of viscous damping which the system will not vibrate.

29. It is loss of energy absorbed by the internal strains.

30. A dynamic system acted upon by an external excitation of frequency coinciding with the natural frequency is said to be in:

31. For a system to be in equilibrium, the sum of the external forces acting on the system must be:

32. Void ratio is:

Answer: Volume of the voids divided by the volume of the solid.

33. Porosity is :

Answer: Volume of voids divided by the total volume.

34. The elastic reaction of a subgrade to a plate load test:

35. The instrument which measures the velocity and acceleration of an earthquake in the ground:

36. A punching strength test correlation between standard stone base and a given soil.

Answer: California Bearing Ratio ( CBR)

37. A wall of sheet piling of either steel, timber or reinforce concrete restrained at the bottom by the soil and at the top by a whale tied to a deadman or pile anchor:

38. This has the effect of delaying the onset of hardening and usually also of reducing the rate of the reaction when it does start:

39. A column of gravel or sand punched through is previous material to permit water to bleed off:

40. An instrument to measure the density of soil:

41. A method of driving piles or well points into sand by using a jet of water to break the soil:

42. The process by which a liquid is drawn into and tends to fill permeable pores in a porous solid and also the increase is mass of a porous solid resulting from the penetration of a liquid into its permeable pores known as:

43. An admixture that cause a decrease in the rate of hydration of the hydraulic cement, and lengthens the time setting is known as :

44. A device for measuring the air content of concrete and mortar.

45. It is a procedure for measuring the finess of powdered materials such as Portland cement is called as:

46. The ultimate load divided by factor of safety is called as:

47. It is used in prestressed tend position so that it wil retain its stressed condition:

48. The angle is between the horizontal and the natural slope of loose materials will not slide known as:

49. A pile that is installed at an angle to the vertical and a ranking pile is called as:

50. A structural member subjected to axial load and flexure but primarily to flexure and also the graduated horizontal bar of weighing a scale on which the balancing poises ride as such called as:

51. The net ultimate bearing capacity for clay soil (∅ = 0) is given by Skempton’s equation as:

Answer: qnet = 5c ( 1 + 0.2 Df/B) (1+ 0.02 B/L)

52. The coefficient of at rest earth pressure is expressed as:

53. The changing or remodeling of a building without adding to its physical size or floor area.

54. A steel plate covering a butt joint, connecting two members by either riveting or welding:

55. It refers to the joining together of structural components with the aid of cement of glue:

56. It is a type of bracing where a pair of braces located either above or both below beam, terminates at a single point within the clear beam span.

57. It is the part of a beam in an acentric braced frame which is designated to yield in shear and / or bending to prelude buckling of the bracing members:

58. It is a form of bracing where a pair of diagonal braces cross near mid-length of the bracing members:

59. It refers to a line of structural steel towers supporting wire ropes which serve as tracks for carriers.

60. The name assigned to the raking strut which transfers to the load from the timbering of a deep trench to the ground.

61. A man who is assisting a crane driver by signaling to him when he is to raise, lower or swing his load.

62. It is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the movement of wind and/ or water.

63. A beam where the span to depth ratio is equal to or less than three to one.

64. It refers to an intermediate stage in the hot rolling or forging of steel.

65. Refers to the highest portion of a bridge pier, upon which the bridge bearing gets seated.

66.Short structural members placed between adjacent beams, joists, rafters, or trusses to stiffen them against sidewise or ” twisting” motion.

67. A numerical measure to establish the relative hardness of various metals by measuring the diameter of an indentation made by a steel ball force against the surface.

68. A beam consisting of several members connected so that they work as one.

69. Refers to the weight per unit volume of many material including the voids and moisture content as compared with the dry density.

70. A built-in upward curvature of a beam or girder to compensate for its deflection or sag.

71. It refers to the point in a body at which it will balance if supported. This is an important factor in all structural design.

72. The phenomenon in which water rises above the groundwater table against the pull of gravity but is in contact with the water table as its source.

73. The strength gain in granular soils due to partial saturation and the surface tension phenomenon is termed.

74. The water content at the division between the semi-solid and the solid state of the soil is known as:

75. It is the point in the cross-section of the beam through which the plane of the transverse bending loads must pass so that the beam will bend without twisting.

76. The stress in the extreme fiber computed on the basis of the elastic flexure formula for the experimentally determined ultimate bending moment is called:

77. It is a measure of the resistance to sliding of one material resting on another. It is the ratio of the sliding force required, to the weight of material being pushed.

78. It refers to the steepest angle measured from the horizontal, used usually in loose or granular material.

79. It is the method of mixing the borrow soil with the large quantities of water and pumping the resulting slurry through a pipeline to a desired location.

80. It is a graphic method for planning , scheduling and controlling the interrelated events for a construction project such that time looses are minimized and controlled.

81. It refers to the load under which along column starts to bend.

82. It is an instrument which is used for gauging any deflections of a structure.

83. It refers to a design load which is calculated and distributed evenly along a structural member.

84. It refers to subsidiary reinforcement in a reinforced concrete slab, laid at right angles to the main reinforcing bars to maintain them in position during concreting and to assist in distributing loads.

85. It is an iron block which is raised by means of hoist and allowed to drop freely on the head of a pile in order to drive it into the ground.

86. In structural design, it is a pressure caused by the weight of the earth or its sideways pressure.

87. A load which is impose on a structure at a point distant from the center of the member is called:

88. Refers to curve which shows the deflected shape of the neutral axis of a beam subjected to bending.

89. Earthquake with focal depths from 60km. To 300 k. are classified as:

90. In concrete materials the law for a mixture of workable consistency states that the strength of concrete is determine by the ratio of water to cement is called:

91. A space between stones in masonry to be filled with mortar is called:

92. A shaft that permits water to drain through an impermeable stratum to a permeable stratum is called:

93. A vertical or horizontal surface in reinforced concrete where concreting stopped and continued later is called:

94. A beam stiffened by a steel tie rod to reduce its deflection is called:

95. A test for determining the supporting capacity of the soil under a pavement is called:

96. A raft like concrete slab foundation which is used tp distribute loads over a large area to reduce bearing pressure on the underlying soils is called:

97. A continuous footing reinforced to act as a beam. It is used to bridge over localized weak soil or spread concentrated loads over a larger soil bearing area is called:

98. A beam made up of one or more steel plates sandwiched between wood beams, and held in place by bolts through the assembly is known as:

99. A test which is used to determine the resistance of a material to a shock load is known as:

100. The angle in radians which the tangent at the elastic curve of a section makes with the horizontal axis of the beam is known as:

101. Standard penetration resistance is:

Answer: A number of blows to drive a standard pile with a standard weight by 6 inches.

102. The lowest element of a foundation which bears on the soil is known as:

103. An isolation joint in a slab is also known as:

104. A mass of boulders and a broken rocks of various sizes which are collected at the foot of a cliff or mountain is called as:

105. The moisture content of a soil, at which a given amount of compaction produces the highest value of dry density is known as:

106. A temporary structure which excludes the water from the site of the foundation during its excavation and construction is known as:

107. A concrete pile which is connected with or without a casing as its permanent location as opposed to a pre- cast concrete pile is known as:

108. The break design in a structure to allow for the drying and temperature shrinkage of concrete which prevent the formation of harmful cracks is known as:

109. Changes in unit weight of dry concrete usually indicates.

Answer: A change in air content

110. When an accelerator is used in a concrete mix:

Answer: It reduces setting time and increases early strength

111. Most of the concrete that is used in building construction has a maximum aggregate size of:

112. When selecting the proportions for normal, heavy- weight and mass concrete, the estimated water content divided by the water-cement ratio determines the amount of:

Answer: Cement per unit volume of concrete

113. The quantity of fine aggregates required in a concrete mix can be determined by:

Answer: Subtracting the weight of the other ingredients in concrete from the total weight of fresh concrete.

114. Concrete made with a coarsely ground cement will:

115. A jitterberg should be used only on:

116. The ” SLENDERNESS RATIO” of the column is generally defined as the ratio of its:

117. The deflection of beam is:

Answer: Inversely proportional to the modulus of elasticity and moment of inertia

118. Poisson’s Ratio is the ratio of the:

Answer: Unit lateral deformation to the unit longitudinal deformation.

119. If cement mortar has begun to harden before it can be used, it should be:

120. To determine the required section modulus “s”, the maximum moment “M” should be:

Answer: Divided by the maximum allowable bending stress

121. The process of providing gentle motion in mixed concrete just sufficient to prevent segregation or loss of plasticity is called as:

122. It is known as an opening left in a vertical member in which a beam is to rest and also an opening in the column or girder forms where forms for an intersection beam will be framed.

123. It is a two- wheeled hand or motor- driven cart usually rubber- tired , for transporting small quantities of concrete from hoppers or mixers form; and sometimes called concrete cart.

124. Mass concrete with pozzolan is best cured with water, which provides additional cooling benefits in warm weather, for at least how many days?

127. Load factor for earth pressure is:

128. Load factor for fluid pressure is:

129. The complete application o base coat plaster is called a:

130.A plaster coat or coats applied prior to application of the finish coat is known as:

131. Spacing of tendons in prestressed beam shall not exceed:

132. In joist construction, the clear spacing between ribs shall not exceed:

133. The Rankine active earth pressure coefficient is expressed as:

Answer: Ka = tan² ( 45+ ∅/2)

134. The coefficient of at rest earth pressure is expressed as:

135. The bearing capacity at the pile tip of a square pile for cohesion less soil  as developed by Terzaghi and Peck is expressed as:

Answer: qtip=Y DfNq +0.4 Y B Ny

where:

Y= unit weight of soil

Df= embedded length of pile

B= width of pile tip (square pile)

R= radius of pile tip (circular pile)

Nq and Ny= bearing capacity factors

136. Frictional resistance or skin resistance of a pile can be written as:

where:

P= perimeter of pile section

L= pile length

f= unit friction resistance at any given depth

Ap= area of pile tip

137. A technique develop in Germany in the 1930’s for in-situ densification of thick layers of loose granular soil deposits.

138. In PERT CPM, the full amount of time by which the start of an activity maybe  delayed without causing the project to last longer is called: Answer: Free float

139. The record test of materials and concrete must be preserved after the completion of the project at least :

140. It is graphical or pictorial method for solving for normal and shear stresses on any plane once the stresses or orthogonal planes are known. This method uses the simple properties of circle and simplifies the calculation necessary for determining the stresses.

141. It is the level to which underground water  will rise in an  observation well, pits, or other open excavation into the earth.

142. A formula which used for calculating the wind pressure, n , normal to roof inclined at ∅ degrees to the horizontal  when the wind  pressure, P, on  a vertical surface is known.

143. Earthquakes with focal  depths from 60 km, to 300 km. are classified as:

144. The total ultimate load capacity of a pile is expressed as:

Answer: Qu = Ap (y Dy Nq + 0.40 y B Ny) + PLf

145. The value of the bearing  capacity Nc with ∅ ( soil friction angle) is expressed as:

Answer: Nc = (Nq- 1) cot ∅

146. The depth Fyd for both  Df/B <1 or >1 is equal to:

147. Critical damping is the least value of the damping coefficient for which  a dynamic  system will not oscillate when distributed initially, but will simply return to the  equilibrium position. The viscous damping occurs when the ratio of the coefficient  to the critical damping is:

148. This foundation is a special type of pier consisting of a hollow shell that s sunk to  position to form a major  part of the structure. The three principal types are the box, which is open, at the top and the bottom , the open, which  is open at the top and the bottom, the open , which is open at the top and at the bottom, and the pneumatic  which is closed at the top and open at the bottom . This foundation is called: