plans & drawing

Plans, Drawings and Specification

Plans and specs is a professional design and construction approach in which design drawings (or plans) are created alongside written requirements (or specs) that will further specify the equipment and features included in the blueprints. Before a construction project begins, the client must decide on a method of project delivery

1.Blueprint -A plan for a building or machine, printed with white lines on a blue background.

2.Architectural Plan – Provides perspective and site development plans, as well as floor plans, elevations, and door and window details.

  • Perspective -It’s the art of sketching two-dimensional things such that they may be seen from a certain angle with the appropriate impression of their heights, widths, depths, and positions in relation to one another.
  • Site Development Plan: It shows the basic plan and arrangement of a site, including building footprints, parking and street layout, landscaping and lighting design concepts, as well as cross-section drawings and elevations.
  • Vicinity Map: A map depicting the planned activity’s location. There must be a clear indication of where the location is in relation to the nearest main highways, cities, and waterways. Anyone may look at the map and find the place without asking for further information.
  • An architectural floor plan is an above-ground representation of a room or structure. A whole building, a level, or even a single room can be depicted in a floor plan. Measurements, furnishings, and appliances may also be included in the blueprint.
  • Elevations: An image displays the front, side, and back perspectives of a building or structure in two dimensions.
  • Finished floor level (FFL) -refers to the topmost surface of a floor after construction is complete but before any finishes are applied.

3. Structural Plan-Plans and drawings of structural components, framing, and foundation layouts of a structure are included.

  • The foundation plan is a sectional plan view drawing that shows the position and size of footings, piers, columns, foundation walls, and supporting beams.
  • Framing Plan: structure (steel or wood or reinforced concrete) size, number, and position in the building’s framework. Floor, wall, and roof frame designs can be created separately.
  • Concrete Cover: protection against corrosion, insulation against severe heat such as fire, and promotes active engagement of reinforcement without sliding when loaded.
  • FC – Compressive strength of concrete
  • FY—Yield strength of steel.
  • Natural Grade Line (NGL) –The elevation of the undisturbed ground or surface prior to excavation or backfilling.
  • OCBW-On Center Both Ways.
  • Soil Bearing Capacity (SBC): The ability of soil to support loads applied to it.
  • SOG-Slab on grade. A concrete slab that is poured on a natural grade.
  • SOF —Slab on fill. A concrete slab that is poured on a compacted earth fill.
  • Stirrup– The main function of a stirrup is to hold the main reinforcement (RFT) bars together in a reinforced concrete part. Stirrups are required to avoid buckling of columns and beams and to help in the resistance of lateral stresses (e.g., earthquake loads).
  • Ties: Their primary function is to hold the longitudinal bars of a concrete column or a vertical structural member.
  • temperature and shrinkage- steel reinforcement which is designed to resist shrinkage stresses.

4. Electrical Plan-Circuit and electrical system diagrams are a special form of technical design that provides visual representation. In it, the engineer’s electrical design is represented by symbols and lines, which are then shown to the client.

  • Gang-describes the number of switches on a plate.
  • spare a blank circuit.
  • VA-Volt Ampere. The unit is used to measure the apparent power in an electrical circuit.

5. Mechanical Plan -A mechanical plan is a set of construction documents that describe the sizing, placement, and routing of ductwork and HVAC components

6. Plumbing Plan –Drawings showing the location and arrangement of water and sewer lines, as well as the septic tank, and other features.

  • Isometric View-As much detail as possible is shown in isometric views of things, usually in technical drawings. In the normal perspective, all lines converge towards a vanishing point, making it impossible to perceive details at the extreme ends of a line.

7. Bill of Quantities or BOQ -The itemization of materials, components, and labor (and their associated costs) is utilized in construction tenders.

8. Rendering – Rendering refers to the process of using application software to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image from a model. Rendering is mostly used in architectural designs, video games, and animated movies, simulators, TV special effects, and design visualization. The techniques and features employed differ depending on the project. Rendering helps in the reduction of design costs and increases efficiency.