Pavement Markings | Types of Pavement Markings| Roadway Marking
What Is Pavement Marking?
Pavement markings, often known as road markings, are components of the intelligence system for road users, which also includes road signs and signals. Pavement markings guide drivers to where they should park their cars, warn them of impending dangers, and indicate where transport is permissible.
The pavement markers are primarily white or yellow in color. Other colors do exist, but the most common ones are white and yellow.
If you notice yellow and white color lines dividing travel lanes or indicating the route’s center, it implies traffic is traveling one way or both directions. The yellow line separates traffic going in opposing directions, while the white line separates traffic going in the same direction.
Roadway striping is separate from pavement markings. They are a component of a guidance system that provides regulatory and vehicle-path information to users without needing them to look away from the road. In general, markings are employed to encourage safe, orderly traffic movement and to maximize highway capacity.
In order to be correct, pavement markings must be clear and easy to comprehend. Every time a pavement marking is encountered, a dependable technique of pavement marking has been developed to convey the same information.
All surface markings should be kept in good condition to guarantee visibility both during the day and at night. It is the obligation of a municipality to maintain a brand current once one has been installed.
READ ALSO: Road Signs and Parts of Pavement and Parts of Roadway
Types of Pavement Marking
The different types of pavement markings that are employed are listed below.
- Longitudinal Markings.
- White Lane Line Pavement Markings.
- Yellow Center Line Pavement Markings & Warrants.
- Edge Line Pavement Markings.
- Raised Pavement Markers (Rpm).
- Roundabout pavement markings
- Arrow Markings
- Hazard Markings
- Facility Marking or Parking
- Directional Marking or Word Messages Marking
Longitudinal Pavement Markings
Longitudinal markings are usually seen parallel and next to traffic movement-lane lines, centerlines, edge lines, channelizing lines, and so on. These markings guide traffic on the road by providing a visual solution to the driving lane. This is one of the greatest road pavement markers available.
Functions of Longitudinal Lines
Solid Line: Drivers are not permitted to cross between lanes while using solid lines; only entry at the beginning and exit at the end are allowed.
Double Solid Line: The double solid line indicates that drivers must not cross the lanes but may be exempted in case of an emergency.
Broken Line: Broken lines allow the driver to safely cross between the lanes.
Dotted Line: A dotted line warns of a route variation ahead.
The following are the widths and arrangements of longitudinal lines:
Standard line- is 4 to 6 inches wide.
Wide line- is the smallest of double the width of a regular line.
The width of the line indicates the level of emphasis.
Double line- two parallel lines that are separated by a double line.
The broken line – normal line section (10 feet) is distinguished by gaps (30 feet).
Dotted line – significantly shorter (2 foot) line sections distinguished by fewer gaps (2 to 6 feet) when used for intersections and narrower (3 foot line sections with 9 foot gaps when used for lane lines).The line width is at least equal to the width of the line it widens.
Vehicles can cross or change lanes by following white or yellow broken lines. These markers are altered with ten-foot painted running and thirty-foot spacing, as mentioned previously. As a result, the distance between the starting of the first dash and the beginning of the second dash in the yellow pavement markings on the road is 40 feet.
A person with this knowledge can quickly assess distances on highways. If three dashes separate two side roads, the expected distance is 120 feet divided by the pavement (3 x 40).
Longitudinal markings are classified as follows:
- No passing zone
- Traffic lines
- Warning lines
- Edge lines
White Lane Line Pavement Markings
White pavement lines designate lanes that travel in the same direction. These markings should be put on the pavement in the same direction of travel as two or more adjacent traffic lanes (unless required for reversible lanes).
White lane markings indicate travel in the same direction.
Lane line markings should also be utilized in congested areas, with lane line markings on more traffic lanes than lanes without markings. A typical lane line will be included in these lane markers. Crossing the marks is permissible except when the white line is broken.
Broken White Line – Vehicles May Change Lane
- Solid White Line: requires drivers to stay in their lane and denotes the road’s shoulder.
- Broken White Line: Drivers may switch lanes on the broken white line unless it is safe to do so.
Yellow Pavement Markings
Routes are divided into opposite traffic lanes by yellow center line pavement markings. These yellow pavement markers can be installed in areas where the route is not perfectly straight. Short areas of road (beyond the constant center line markings) may be designated with centerline pavement road markings to manage traffic, as needed for bends, slopes, grade crossings, bridges, and other obstacles.
Traffic in both directions was allowed to pass across the broken yellow lines with care. Vehicles are permitted to move through.
Two yellow lines (broken and solid) where vehicles can pass on the broken line but not on the solid line. If you’re near the solid line, don’t pass.
Traffic passing in either direction is prohibited by double solid yellow lines that run across the crossroads and centerline. Driving to the left of these lines is no longer an option.
The centerline markings will be two-direction no-passing zone markers for undivided two-way highways with four or more traffic lanes (double solid yellow lines). One or two-direction no-passing areas that designate two lanes for one-direction traffic will be marked above two-way roadways with three through lanes.
Where engineering studies demonstrate that passing must be restricted owing to inadequate sight distance or other particular conditions, no–passing zones shall be implemented on two and three-lane roadways (with centerline marking).
Locations of Common No-Passing Zones,
- Transitions from one lane to another
- There is a threat of obstruction (requisite passed on the right side)
- Crossings of grades
- Railroad-highway grade crossings
- Locations with inadequate sight distance
The use of one-direction or two-direction no-passing zone pavement markings is required by the standard traffic control devices guidelines. To maintain the limits of a no-passing zone, no-passing zone signs can be used in addition to markers.
One-Direction No-Passing Zone Markings
No-Passing Zone Markings in One Direction
One normal broken line and one normal solid line form a double yellow line. Driving near the broken line is permitted to pass, whereas traffic adjacent to the solid line is prohibited.
Two-Direction No-Passing Zone Markings
Markings for No-Passing Zones in Both Directions
Passing is prohibited in both directions by double solid yellow lines.
Edge Line Pavement Markings
Roadway edges are defined by edge-line pavement markers. In bad weather and low visibility, these might be used as visual cues. Edge lines should not be extended through major roadways or intersections.
Normal solid yellow lines can be used to delineate the left side of a roadway or to indicate limits to the left of these markings on split highways, one-way streets, or ramps.
The right-hand edge of the roadway can be defined by the normal solid white lines.
Wide solid edge line marks can be employed in places where higher precision is required.
Stop & Yield Lines
When approaching an intersection or a mid-block crossing, stop and yield lines are transversal pavement markings that guide drivers where and when to stop or yield.
These markings are often white lines perpendicular to the driving lane (stop lines, yield lines, crosswalks), as well as important markings (symbols, word markings, channelization markings, and so on).
Yield lines, also known as “Give Way Lines,” advise motorists where a yield is intended or required at an intersection or roundabout controlled by a yield sign.
This marker is made up of a row of solid white isosceles triangles that indicate the direction of incoming vehicles. Yield lines may be required in response to a yield sign or a “Yield Here to Pedestrians” sign. The yield line markers, on the other hand, must not be utilized where drivers are forced to stop.
Raised Pavement Markings (Rpm)
For roadway pavement markings, raised pavement markings can be added to or replaced. They can be retroreflective or non-retroreflective, with prismatic cube-corner reflectors being utilized for retroreflective features that are required.
Raised pavement markers must improve visibility in poor weather conditions, endure longer than markings, act as tactile alerts, and act as transverse rumble strips.
Crosswalks Pavement Markings
Pedestrians are directed to cross at crosswalks when convenient traffic control (such as traffic lights or adult school crossing guards) is either present or may be provided. On the other hand, the designated pedestrian crosswalks do not moderate traffic or minimize pedestrian accidents on their own.
Multiple traffic regulations specify that a crosswalk exists at a crossing regardless of whether or not it is marked, depending on the detection.
Crosswalk markings are used to describe and outline pathways at signalized intersections and on approaches to traffic stops. These crosswalks warn drivers of pedestrian crossings that are not restricted by signals or signs.
Crosswalk markings may be useful at signalized intersections or even other areas where crosswalks are often utilized, as well as at major area crossings with designated school walking routes and certain types of uncontrolled crossings. Non-intersection crosswalks are legally designated by crosswalk markings.
Roundabout Pavement Markings
A roundabout is a special form of circular intersection with specific traffic management measures and is designed to maintain regulated speeds. The geometric shape and planned lane use of a roundabout must be taken into account when designing pavement markings and signage.
Diagonal white lines
Vehicles are supposed to keep off an area filled with diagonal white lines and surrounded by solid white lines unless there is an emergency. When roads diverge or intersect, these areas are frequently used to help with traffic flow.
These closely spaced horizontal white lines not only give your car’s suspension a workout, but they also warn you of potential hazards ahead, such as dangerous turns or merging traffic
To avoid traffic confusion, arrow markings are painted on the pavements or roadways to provide the appropriate direction to the driver, and they must follow these mandatory turns.
The arrow may have either one or more than one direction.
- One direction: The driver is only allowed to drive in one direction.
- Two directions: The driver can drive in any direction.
This marking is designed to warn drivers of a hazard that the intersection ahead is safe such as restricting lane changes, merging, or diverging.
If the driver fails to detect these hazardous lines, he or she may have less time to respond to an impending hazard. Hatch marking, prohibitor marking chevron, and diagonal marking are common methods of hazard marking.
Facility Marking or Parking
This marking guides vehicle parking by indicating parking space limits and restrictions to the driver.
It also restricts encroachment on designated areas such as bus stops, fire hydrant zones, and other such areas.
Directional Marking or Word Messages Marking
Directional markings are those that are written or painted in words, making them easy to understand and allowing the driver to respond accordingly. The message’s characters are elongated, making it visible to the driver from a lower angle.
The following are some directional markings:
- Speed limit
- Curve ahead
- Exit only
- School zone
Different Colors Used in Pavement Marking Their Meaning
White :It defines the right edge of the road by separating traffic traveling in the same direction.
Yellow: It defines the left edge of divided or one-way roadways and ramps as two-way left-turn lanes and reversible lanes from other lanes, separating traffic flows in different directions.
Blue: It can be complemented by white markings for handicap parking.
Purple: It can be supplemented with toll plaza approach lane lines or edge lines managed for registered electronic toll recording vehicles.
Black: It is used in conjunction with other pavement markings (yellow, white, red, blue, and purple) on light-colored pavements that do not provide sufficient contrast.