Loadings are the forces that induce stresses, deformation, or accelerations. These loads, which generate stress or displacement in a structure or its components, are applied to the structure or its components.

Dead Load –These loadings consist of the self-weight of the structure (weight of walls, floors, roofs, etc.). The foundation and footings’ weight, as well as any other permanent loads on the building, These loads may be calculated by determining the weights of the cubical contents of the various construction materials.

Live Load – Live loads are moveable or adjustable loads such as people, furniture, temporary stores, and so on. These types of loads are variable and can fluctuate over time according to consumption and capacity. This is referred to as a “superimposed load.”

Hydrostatic Pressure -Standing water pushes any object or surface that becomes entangled in it (in this case, your basement wall).The pull of gravity on still water is relentless, causing the water to push against anything that restricts its flow.

Lateral Earth Pressure -The horizontal pressure exerted by or on soil when it comes into contact with standing structures such as basements (buildings) and retaining walls.

Seismic Load – Structures vibrate as a result of the earthquake’s loading.

Wind Load- The force acting on a structure’s roof and other exterior members.

Shear load- A shear load is a force that generates shear stress in a structural member when applied. Shear stress is a force per unit area that arises in the plane perpendicular to normal stress when two planes of the same object try to slide past each other. Engineers must determine the shear stress on structures to ensure that they do not fail mechanically.

Moment – The impact of a rotating force on the body on which it acts. The moment is equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the necessary moment and the force’s line of action.

Compressive load-A compressive load is a physical force that causes a material to become compact.

Snow Load– Snow loads are determined by a number of factors, including the shape and size of the roof structure, roofing materials, the building’s location, insulation, and the duration and frequency of snowfall.

Tensile Load: It is the opposite of the compressive loading that causes a material to pull apart.

Torsion: The twisting or wrenching of a body is caused by the application of forces that tend to turn one end or section of a body along a longitudinal axis while the other is kept steady or rotated in the opposite direction.