What is Hydraulic Engineering?
The movement and transportation of fluids, especially water and sewage, is the focus of hydraulic engineering. One of these systems’ unique features is the extensive utilization of gravity as the driving factor for fluid movement. Civil engineering includes bridges, dams, channels, canals, and levees, as well as sanitary and environmental engineering.
Hydraulic engineering is the application of fluid mechanics ideas to water collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and consumption concerns. The hydraulic engineer creates conceptual designs for numerous water-related elements, such as dam spillways and outlet works, highway culverts, irrigation canals and related structures, and thermal power plant cooling-water facilities.
Fluid mechanics is the discipline of science that studies the behavior of fluids while in motion or at rest. Whether the fluid is at rest or in motion, it is susceptible to a variety of forces and external variables, as we all know. It responds in these situations in accordance with its physical features. Fluid mechanics is concerned with three elements of the fluid: statics, kinematics, and dynamics.
Fluid statics: This studies the fluid in a state of rest
Fluid kinematics: Fluid kinematics: “moving fluid” refers to fluid in motion, and fluid kinematics is the study of it.
Fluid dynamics is the study of the effect of all pressures, including external pressures, on a moving fluid.
FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
MASS DENSITY (ρ)
The amount of fluid contained in a unit volume.
SPECIFIC VOLUME (v)
The fluid’s volume per unit mass.
SPECIFIC WEIGHT (w)
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (S)
The dimensionless of the specific weight (or density) of a fluid to the specific weight ( or density) of a standard fluid.
DYNAMIC VISCOSITY (μ)
The property of fluid which determines the amount of its resistance to shearing stress, τ
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY (ϒ)
The ratio of a fluid’s dynamic viscosity to its density.
FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUITS
TOTAL ENERGY LINE (TEL)
TEL = Pressure Head + Kinetic Head + Datum Head
HYDRAULIC ENERGY LINE (HEL)
HEL = Pressure Head + Datum Head
HAGEN POISEUILLE’S EQUATION
THE RATIO BETWEEN MAXIMUM VELOCITY & AVERAGE VELOCITY
MINOR LOSS IN PIPES
LOSS DUE TO SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT
LOSS DUE TO GRADUAL CONTRACTION
LOSS AT DUE TO VARIOUS FITTINGS