Concrete Spalling: Causes and How It Can Be Prevented

Concrete Spalling: Causes and How It Can Be Prevented Concrete spalling is one of the most serious issues affecting the durability of reinforced concrete constructions. It occurs for a variety of reasons, which we will explore in the last section of this article.   The spalling usually occurs in older buildings. Typically, it begins when […]

Factors Affecting Concrete Strength

FACTORS AFFECTING CONCRETE STRENGTH AND WORKABILITY The strength and workability of concrete are both critical factors that need to be considered in the making of concrete. The strength of concrete determines its ability to withstand various loads, while workability refers to the ease with which it can be placed, compacted, and finished. Both factors are […]

Types of Stone Masonry

Types of Stone Masonry and Materials Used for Stone Masonry In this article, we briefly discuss the different types of stone masonry and materials used for stone masonry. What is Stone Masonry? Stone masonry is a type of construction in which natural stones are used as the primary building material. It involves the process of […]

Plumbing Tools

Different Types of Plumbing Tools and their Uses A plumbing tool is a specialized tool used by plumbers to perform various tasks related to the installation, maintenance, and repair of plumbing systems. These tools are designed to make plumbing work easier, more efficient, and more precise. Plumbing tools come in various shapes and sizes and […]

Reinforcement Splicing

REINFORCEMENT SPLICING Reinforcement splicing, also known as rebar splicing, is the process of connecting two or more reinforcing bars (rebars) to create a continuous reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures. Reinforcement splicing is typically done to achieve structural integrity, continuity, and load transfer across the spliced bars. Proper reinforcement splicing is critical to ensure the performance […]

Dewatering Methods in Construction

Dewatering methods in construction This article provides an overview of the different dewatering methods used in construction. It also discusses the purposes of dewatering and the precautions that need to be taken during dewatering. what is dewatering? Dewatering is the process of removing groundwater or surface water from a construction site to create a dry […]

Kilometer Post

kilometer post | Kilometer marker posts For those who are unfamiliar, kilometer post are the upright cement poles that are typically yellow and are located along the side of the road. They are common in the provinces, particularly on national highways such as the Pan-Philippine Highway, which stretches across the Philippines. Most of us were […]

Causes of Cracks in Concrete

Causes of Cracks in Concrete and How to Prevent Cracks in Concrete? What Is Concrete Crack? Cracking lines on the concrete’s surface may be found along which it splits without breaking apart. These lines are known as concrete cracks. Causes of Cracks in Concrete Cracking is one of the most common problems in concrete and […]

Types of Scaffolding

Types of scaffolding used in construction There are several types of scaffolding, each with its own set of advantages. The type of scaffolding used is determined by the circumstances of the construction project. Each project’s size and complexity will determine which type or types are necessary to complete the work effectively and safely. Scaffolding Scaffolding […]

Paint Chalking

PAINT CHALKING Chalking is the formation of a white, chalky powder on the exterior surface of the paint.This condition frequently occurs when the paint has weathered and the binder has been exposed to sunlight and moisture, causing the pigment-binder bond to weaken. When exposed to the outside air, almost all paints will develop some backing […]

Types of Sewer Pipes

For generations, different types of sewer pipes have been used. As a result, knowing the different types of obsolete and new sewer pipes can aid in proper maintenance or the design and installation of an efficient sewer pipe system. What Are Sewer Pipes? Sewer pipes are used to dispose of waste. Sewer pipes are made […]

Concrete Vibrator

A concrete vibrator is used to ensure that the concrete becomes compact while putting concrete i.e. the concrete is placed without the inclusion of air bubbles which can affect its strength and it is necessary in most cases because the fluidity of concrete is limited by the amount of water used in the mixture. What […]

Road Drainage

ROAD DRAINAGE The road drainage system is used to remove and dispose of surface and subsurface water. It maintains the road’s stability and durability by keeping it as dry as possible. Water becomes more prone to contamination the longer it remains on a surface. Highway design and construction are not complete without the installation of […]

Types of False Ceilings

In this article, we’ll discuss the different types of false ceilings, their purposes, advantages, and disadvantages. What is False Ceiling?False ceilings are made of artificial materials and are hung below a room’s original ceiling. To put it simply, it is the secondary ceiling that is supported by frames and hangs below the primary ceiling. These […]

Types of Brazing Method

In this article, we’ll discuss the different types of brazing, their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. What is Brazing? Brazing is the process of joining two metals together using a molten filler metal. The filler metal will melt at a lower temperature than the two metals being joined. Brazing Process Cleaning the base metal surfaces is […]

Fiber Reinforced Concrete

What is Fiber Reinforced Concrete? Fiber-reinforced concrete is a type of concrete that consists of cement, aggregates, and a small amount of fibers. Fibers are used in concrete to reduce permeability, bleeding, and the formation of minor cracks. Additionally, fibers increase concrete’s tensile strength and impact resistance. The improvement of weakness is determined by several […]

Types of Ceiling Light Fixtures

There are different common types of ceiling light fixtures, including flush and semi-flush mount fixtures, pendants, chandeliers, track lighting, recessed lighting, and more. When choosing the right ceiling light for your room, you should consider the room’s size, style, and overall atmosphere, as well as the style of a specific fixture. Why Are Ceiling Lights Important? […]

Kitchen Layout

In this article, we will discuss the various types of kitchen layout used in homes and other buildings. What is Kitchen? A kitchen is a separate area or a particular room in a home designed specifically for cooking. The kitchen serves as one of the most important spaces in the house. The kitchen is used […]

Kitchen Sinks

KITCHEN SINKS: TYPES | BASE ON INSTALLATION, BASIN CONFIGURATION AND MATERIALS One of the most difficult tasks when designing or remodeling a kitchen is choosing the right types of sinks for the space. Since the sink is one of the busiest areas in the kitchen, finding the best types of sinks is important. Kitchen sinks […]

Types of Grout Used for Tile Installation

TYPES OF GROUT USED FOR TILE INSTALLATION Tilers typically use three types of grout when installing tiles: cementitious grout, chemical grout, and acrylic grout. Each type of grout has unique properties that make it appropriate for particular applications. What is grout? Grout is a thick paste used to fill in gaps, voids, and joints. It […]

Epoxy Flooring

EPOXY FLOORING: TYPES | ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES An epoxy floor is one that has an epoxy layer that is at least two millimetres thick. The depth of epoxy is what distinguishes epoxy flooring from epoxy coating. It is also referred to as “resinous flooring.” Epoxy flooring is extremely durable, long-lasting, and decorative for any surface. […]

Plumbing Traps

What are Traps in Plumbing? A trap is a device that prevents sewer gases from entering the structure. The traps hold a small amount of water and are installed beneath or within a plumbing fixture. The holding water acts as a water seal, keeping foul gases from drain pipes from entering the structure. Therefore, traps […]

Elevated Water Storage Tanks

ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK Water is required for a variety of activities in the household, including cooking, cleaning, bathing, washing clothes and utensils, and so on. It is simply a strong water supply system that can make water available at various points and for various applications throughout a house. Elevated water tank systems will be […]


Flyover: Types | Classification based on Form & Material | Advantages & Disadvantages A flyover is built over the road to help with traffic management. It can be built over a railroad or an existing road. Nowadays, the use of these flyovers is a common engineering term in large cities with congested traffic. What is […]

Rumble Strips

Rumble strips (also known as alert strips or sleeper lines) are a road safety precaution that alerts inattentive drivers of a possible hazard by causing a tactile vibration and audible rumbling that is transmitted into the vehicle interior via the wheels. A rumble strip is used to alert drivers when they drift from their lane […]

Super Elevation

Superelevation | Factors Affecting Super elevation Design | A Method of Providing Road Superelevation One of the most important features in road construction is super elevation on horizontal curves. It is essential to provide super elevation on roads for the safe movement of vehicles on curved sections of roads. It allows fast-moving vehicles to travel […]

Fiber Cement Flooring

Fiber Cement Flooring A lightweight fiber cement flooring system is appropriate for any construction project with a limited construction time. It also helps to lighten the main structure. Light weight flooring system is a revolutionary system that reduces the total weight of the floors, eliminating many problems associated with heavy and dense traditional building materials […]

Pervious Concrete

What Is Pervious Concrete? Pervious concrete is a type of concrete that consists of cement, coarse aggregates, water, and, if required, admixtures and other cementitious materials (such as silica fume, fly ash, and so on). In this type of concrete, fine aggregates are not typically used in the concrete matrix. As a result, the void […]

Foam Concrete

What is Foam Concrete? Foam concrete is a fantastic material for producing large quantities of relatively low-strength void-filling material; it can be easily pumped long distances and it will fill most cavities.  Since foam concrete is so fluid and flowing, it can “search” without needing to be leveled or compacted. In addition, foam concrete can […]

Steel Deck Installation and Construction

STEEL DECK INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTION Steel deck, also known as metal deck, is a galvanized steel sheet used in the construction of composite concrete floor slabs. It is also useful as a structural element in roof construction. It is used to support insulating membranes when specified as metal roof decking. Since composite metal decking has […]

Types of Concrete Finishes

TYPES OF CONCRETE FINISHES The most basic types of concrete finishes are smooth surfaces formed with screeds and trowels. Concrete finishing work screed is applied to the surface of the concrete immediately when it has been laid in form.  In order to remove excess concrete and fill in cracks, screeds—typically made of long pieces of […]


What is formwork? Formworks are an important component in the building industry and may be defined as a temporary or permanent shape into which concrete is poured and hardened. Formworks are built of wood or steel, with the surface in touch with the concrete chosen to provide the desired finish. The formworks and related false […]

Flexible Pavement Failure

Flexible pavement are ones that are layered over the subgrade and comprise a mixture of asphaltic or bituminous material and aggregates that have been compacted. Its construction is based on the idea that a load of any magnitude gets less as it is transferred downward from the surface. The load spreads over an expanding surface […]

Different types of asphalt pavements in construction

different types of asphalt pavement in construction The types of asphalt mixture required for any specific paving or repair job are mostly determined by the type of work required, the geographical climate, and the amount of damage. What is Asphalt? Asphalt is a sustainable paving solution composed of aggregates, binder, and filler. Aggregates are processed […]

Traffic management

What is Traffic Management? Traffic management is the organization, arrangement, guidance, and control of stationary and moving traffic, including automobiles, bicycles, and pedestrians, within a construction area. Proper traffic management improves the safe, orderly, and efficient flow of people and commodities while simultaneously seeking to safeguard the quality of the local environment.  Traffic management (often […]

Masonry wall

What is masonry wall? Masonry wall are the most durable part of any building or structure. They provide strength, durability to the structure and also help to control indoor and outdoor temperature.  It separate a building from the outside world. Masonry is the word used in construction with mortar as a binding materials with individual […]


What is drywall?      Drywall is a type of construction material that is used to cover the framework of walls and ceilings. It’s made of gypsum, which is an abundant, naturally occurring material, making it an eco-friendly choice. The gypsum is combined with other components to create a slurry, which is then placed between two layers […]

Box culvert reinforcement lay-out

What is culvert? A culvert is a tunnel that carries a stream beneath a roadway or railway. For traffic to pass through, a culvert can act as a bridge. They are usually found in natural water flows and are used as bridges or as current flow controllers.  Culverts are installed beneath roads and highways to […]

Types of Steel Beam Connections

TYPES OF STEEL BEAM CONNECTIONS Bolted framed connections For these types of steel beam connections, the load at the end of the beam is used to design the connection. When designing a connection, it is necessary to consider the strength, type, and size of fasteners as well as the strength of the foundation materials. At […]

Types of Septic Tank

Septic Tank A septic tank is a concrete, fiberglass, or plastic subterranean chamber into which residential wastewater (sewage) flows for basic treatment. Solids and organics are reduced by settle and anaerobic processes, although treatment effectiveness is only moderate. Types of Septic Tank Steel septic tanks- A steel septic tank is one of the least common […]

Types of fixtures

TYPES OF PLUMBING FIXTURES Bidet- The purpose of these types of fixtures is to clean the perineal region. Both men and women may clean using this fixture. Since the aperture is below the bidet’s flood level rim, the exit must be covered from backflow when water spray is given. Water Closet– A human excrement disposal […]

Types of vent

VENTS System allows atmospheric air from outside the building into the piping system to the outlet (or discharge) end of the trap prevents siphonage of a trap seal in fixture traps and allows gravity flow of drainage. The air is supplied through pipes known as “VENTS,” and the pressure on the outlet end of the […]

Types of Fitting in Plumbing

Fittings come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are used to connect one or more pipes and/or change the direction of a straight pipe line. According to codes, any pipe change in a drainage system must have a radius of curvature large enough to avoid silt accumulation and provide suitable hydraulic flow characteristics. […]

Types of Pipe

Tubular sections or hollow cylinders, typically but not always circular in cross-section, are used largely to transport substances that flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powder, and small solid masses. Hollow pipe may also be used for structural purposes because it is significantly stiffer per unit weight than solid sections. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipes […]

Types of Foundation

TYPES OF FOUNDATION A. Deep Foundation – Surface conditions have little influence on their base bearing capacity since they are situated so far below the completed surface. These types of foundation are appropriate when there are unstable soils near the surface of the ground. Types of Deep Foundation Pile Foundations – A pile foundation, which […]

Masonry Works

masonry works What is masonry? The term “masonry” refers to the practice of constructing a structure out of stones or bricks. Individual blocks of materials such as stones, bricks, concrete, hollow blocks, cellular concrete, and laterite are set out in horizontal courses and bound together using mortar in a masonry works construction. When it comes […]

Plumbing Works

PLUMBING WORKS A plumbing system is the combination of pipes and fittings installed in a building or premises. There are two types of plumbing systems in all facilities: One is in charge of the provision of drinking water, while the other is in charge of disposing of waste water.  Water service plumbing work includes the […]

Ceiling Works

MATERIALS IN CEILING WORKS Carrying Channel – The main support of a suspended ceiling system, on which further furring members or furring channels can be attached, is the furring member. The carrying channel, like the double furring channel, is also used on suspended ceilings and may support the whole ceiling assembly. The carrying channel can […]

Paint Works

Materials in Paint work Here’s a list of basic equipment and materials to get you started on your next painting project. Paint is used to give polish and finalize the appearance of the building’s exterior and interior wall surfaces. Paint- is any colored liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic mixture that, when applied to a substrate […]

Steel Works

Steel works Steel works designs and produces steel items that comprise a work’s load-bearing structure according to the requirements of the standard for working with iron and steel load-bearing structures. Steelworkers assemble and disassemble rigging devices to move and place equipment and structural components, build scaffolding, position and fasten steel reinforcing in concrete forms, and […]